SQL Injection

SQL injection is a strong password cracking technique that exploits a security vulnerability occurring in the database layer of an application.SQL Injection is subset of the an unverified/unsanitized user input vulnerability ("buffer overflows" are a different subset), and the idea is to convince the application to run SQL code that was not intended. If the application is creating SQL strings naively on the fly and then running them, it's straightforward to create some real surprises.

The primary form of SQL injection consists of direct insertion of code into user-input variables that are concatenated with SQL commands and executed. A less direct attack injects malicious code into strings that are destined for storage in a table or as metadata. When the stored strings are subsequently concatenated into a dynamic SQL command, the malicious code is executed.
The injection process works by prematurely terminating a text string and appending a new command. Because the inserted command may have additional strings appended to it before it is executed, the malefactor terminates the injected string with a comment mark "--". Subsequent text is ignored at execution time.

var Shipcity;
ShipCity = Request.form ("ShipCity");
var sql = "select * from OrdersTable where ShipCity = '" + ShipCity + "'";

The user is prompted to enter the name of a city. If she enters Redmond, the query assembled by the script looks similar to the following:
SELECT * FROM OrdersTable WHERE ShipCity = 'Redmond'
However, assume that the user enters the following:
Redmond'; drop table OrdersTable--
In this case, the following query is assembled by the script:
SELECT * FROM OrdersTable WHERE ShipCity = 'Redmond';drop table OrdersTable--'
The semicolon (;) denotes the end of one query and the start of another. The double hyphen (--) indicates that the rest of the current line is a comment and should be ignored. If the modified code is syntactically correct, it will be executed by the server. When SQL Server processes this statement, SQL Server will first select all records in OrdersTable where ShipCity is Redmond. Then, SQL Server will drop OrdersTable.
As long as injected SQL code is syntactically correct, tampering cannot be detected programmatically. Therefore, you must validate all user input and carefully review code that executes constructed SQL commands in the server that you are using. Coding best practices are described in the following sections in this topic.

Input character      Meaning in Transact-SQL

;                        Query delimiter.

'                       Character data string delimiter.

--                   Comment delimiter.

/* ... */                     Comment delimiters. Text between /* and */ is not evaluated by the server.

xp_                   Used at the start of the name of catalog-extended stored procedures, such as xp_cmdshell.