Spiga

NMAP UTILITY


How To Handle NMAP


NMAP is one of the best tool for knowing the target information.This can be used as follows:-


Download the NMAP as said in the last post.Install the NMAP.exe file.In the command prompt type nmap and its options.Its options are:


Nmap 4.20 ( http://insecure.org/ )

Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}

TARGET SPECIFICATION:

Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.

Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254

-iL : Input from list of hosts/networks

-iR : Choose random targets

--exclude : Exclude hosts/networks

--excludefile : Exclude list from file


HOST DISCOVERY:

-sL: List Scan - simply list targets to scan

-sP: Ping Scan - go no further than determining if host is online

-P0: Treat all hosts as online -- skip host discovery

-PS/PA/PU [portlist]: TCP SYN/ACK or UDP discovery to given ports

-PE/PP/PM: ICMP echo, timestamp, and netmask request discovery probes

-n/-R: Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes]

--dns-servers : Specify custom DNS servers

--system-dns: Use OS's DNS resolver


SCAN TECHNIQUES:

-sS/sT/sA/sW/sM: TCP SYN/Connect()/ACK/Window/Maimon scans

-sU: UDP Scan

-sN/sF/sX: TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans

--scanflags : Customize TCP scan flags

-sI : Idlescan

-sO: IP protocol scan

-b : FTP bounce scan


PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:

-p : Only scan specified ports

Ex: -p22; -p1-65535;

-p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080

-F: Fast - Scan only the ports listed in the nmap-services file)

-r: Scan ports consecutively - don't randomize


SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:

-sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info

--version-intensity : Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)

--version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)

--version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)

--version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)


OS DETECTION:

-O: Enable OS detection (try 2nd generation w/fallback to 1st)

-O2: Only use the new OS detection system (no fallback)

-O1: Only use the old (1st generation) OS detection system

--osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets

--osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively


TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:

Options which take

-T[0-5]: Set timing template (higher is faster)

--min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup : Parallel host scan group sizes

--min-parallelism/max-parallelism

--min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout

--max-retries : Caps number of port scan probe retransmissions.

--host-timeout

--scan-delay/--max-scan-delay


FIREWALL/IDS EVASION AND SPOOFING:

-f; --mtu : fragment packets (optionally w/given MTU)

-D : Cloak a scan with decoys

-S : Spoof source address

-e : Use specified interface

-g/--source-port : Use given port number

--data-length : Append random data to sent packets

--ip-options : Send packets with specified ip options

--ttl : Set IP time-to-live field

--spoof-mac : Spoof your MAC address

--badsum: Send packets with a bogus TCP/UDP checksum


OUTPUT:

-oN/-oX/-oS/-oG : Output scan in normal, XML, s
-oA : Output in the three major formats at once

-v: Increase verbosity level (use twice for more effect)

-d[level]: Set or increase debugging level (Up to 9 is meaningful)

--open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports

--packet-trace: Show all packets sent and received

--iflist: Print host interfaces and routes (for debugging)

--log-errors: Log errors/warnings to the normal-format output file

--append-output: Append to rather than clobber specified output files

--resume : Resume an aborted scan

--stylesheet : XSL stylesheet to transform XML output to HTML

--webxml: Reference stylesheet from Insecure.Org for more portable XML

--no-stylesheet: Prevent associating of XSL stylesheet w/XML output


MISC:

-6: Enable IPv6 scanning

-A: Enables OS detection and Version detection

--datadir : Specify custom Nmap data file location

--send-eth/--send-ip: Send using raw ethernet frames or IP packets

--privileged: Assume that the user is fully privileged

--unprivileged: Assume the user lacks raw socket privileges

-V: Print version number

-h: Print this help summary page.


EXAMPLES:

nmap -v -A scanme.nmap.org

nmap -v -sP 192.168.0.0/16 10.0.0.0/8

nmap -v -iR 10000 -P0 -p 80

BEST HACKING TOOLS

mynetsecurity

Hacking Tools


These are the best third hacking tools.

1)NMap:

To Download NMap click here

2)Netcat

To Download Netcat click here

3)EnumSolarWinds TFTP Server

4)Teleport Pro

To Download Teleport pro click here


Microsoft utilities:


1)TFTP

2)NBTSTAT

3)PING

4)TRACERT

5)NET

6)ARP

7)IPCONFIG

You can run this utilities directly by typing this command in the run command prompt.

MOBILE HACKS-II

mynetsecurity.blogspot.com

Blocking Cell Phone Number From Seen in Caller IDs


Freinds after reading this article you will be able to block your cell phone number from showing up on other people's caller IDs. It's very simple to block your cell phone number. You have two options: you can permanently block your phone number or you can block your number on a call by call basis.


Blocking Your Cell Phone Number Permanently:


The most permanent solution is to request a "line block" from your cell phone carrier.

1) To do this you simply need to call the customer service for your specific provider and they can block your number. When you do this your number will never show up to anyone.

2) To call your customer service to block your cell phone number, just dial 611 from your cell phone and you will reach them.


3) If there is a situation where you want your number to show up, you will still have an option. When you have a permanent block on your cell phone number you will need to dial *82 before dialing the number you are calling. When you do this your phone number will show up just once for that specific call. Ex: *82 (555) 555-5555.


Blocking Your Cell Phone Number Temporarily:


Sometimes you may want to block you number for a specific call. You might not want someone to know that you are trying to reach them for the 15th time in a row, or you might be calling a business and might not want them to know your number.

1) If you want to block your cell phone number on a call by call basis you need to dial *67 before dialing the number. Ex *67 (555) 555-5555.

2) When you do this you will not have any feedback that it worked. If you want to test this, just call your home phone, or anther phone that has a caller ID from your cell to confirm that your phone number is blocked.


NOTE:One important thing to remember is that your number will not be blocked from emergency services or any toll free numbers.



How to Find the Owner of a Cell Phone Number:


If you want to identify and unidentified phone number you can with reverse phone number search websites. You can do free reverse phone number search at http://www.infospace.com/ but if you want to find out who owns a cell phone number then use http://www.cellreversesearch.com/.



Steps
1 Step One
Go to www.cellreversesearch.com
2 Step Two
Enter any phone number
3 Step Three
Hit Search
4 Step Four
Check Results
5 Step Five
Sign up for owner's name, address and cell phone account history information

BLUESNARFING-Another Hacking Technique


Bluesnarfing-Mobile Hacking

What is Bluesnarfing?
Ans:Bluesnarfing is the unauthorized access of information from a wireless device through a bluetooth connection, often between phones, desktops, laptops, and PDAs that allows access to calendar, contact list, emails and text messages, and on some phones users can steal pictures and private videos,from Mobile or any other bluetooth device.


Watch video for Bluesnarfing




BlueSnarf exploits weak OBEX implementation on mobile phoneBlueSnarfexploitsweakOBEXimplementationonmobilephonesOPP: Object push profile, unauthorised access, for vCardOPP:Objectpushprofile,unauthorisedaccess,for vCardsSYNCH: Profile for exchange of private dataSYNCH:ProfileforexchangeofprivatedataCalendar, contacts, pictures, …Calendar,contacts,pictures,…Authorised access!Authorisedaccess!.Adv connects to OBEX push profileNo authentication, no pairing needed .invisible connection .In vulnerable implementations:.SYNCH profile exists parallel to OPP .Adv: retrieve files via filenames .Unauthorised, via OPP profile !!! .e.g. GET telecom/pb.vcf (contacts) Bluetooth being short range technology: NO security feature!

Method
In order to perfom a BlueSnarf attack, the attacker needs to connect to the OBEX Push Profile (OPP), which has been specified for the easy exchange of business cards and other objects. In most of the cases, this service does not require authentication. Missing authentication is not a problem for OBEX Push, as long as everything is implemented correctly. The BlueSnarf attack connects to an OBEX Push target and performs an OBEX GET request for known filenames such as 'telecom/pb.vcf' for the devices phone book or 'telecom/cal.vcs' for the devices calendar file. (There are many more names of files in the IrMC Specification). In case of improper implementation of the device firmware, an attacker is able to retrieve all files where the name is either known or guessed correctly.

MOBILE HACK TIPS

MYNETSECURITY.


Mobile Security tips

1)To check Mobile name and date of manufacture: *#0000#

2)To check Serial Number: *#06#

3)To Format the cell phone(Restore all original setting): *#7370#


Check Mobile Quality:

You can easily check your mobile is original or not,to know this ,do the following:

1)Find the serial number of your mobile by pressing: *#06#
2)Check the 7th and 8th digit of the serial number.




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14



A) IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 02 or 20 this means your cell phone was assembled in Emirates which is very Bad quality.
B) IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 08 or 80 this means your cell phone was manufactured in Germany which is fair quality.
C) IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 01 or 10 this means your cell phone was manufactured in Finland which is very Good.
D) IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 00 this means your cell phone was manufactured in original factory which is the best Mobile Quality.
E) IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 13 this means your cell phone was assembled in Azerbaijan which is very Bad quality and also dangerous for your health.

FIREWALL

FIREWALL
A firewall is a hardware or software device which is configured to permit, deny, or proxy data through a computer network which has different levels of trust. The most common boundary where firewalls are applied is between an organization’s internal network and the interne t. This report will provide readers with a resource for understanding firewall design principles used in network security.

So , basically, a firewall is a barrier to keep destructive forces away from your property. In fact, that's why its called a firewall. Its job is similar to a physical firewall that keeps a fire from spreading from one area to the next.
Firewall Architectures
There are two classes of firewall architectures:
1)single layer and,
2) multiple layer.

In a single layer architecture, one host is allocated all firewall functions. This method is usually chosen when either cost is a key factor or if there are only two networks to connect. The advantage to this architecture is any changes to the firewall need only to be done at a single host.
•The biggest disadvantage of the single layer approach it provides single entry point.
If this entry point is breached, the entire network becomes vulnerable to an intruder.
In a multiple layer architecture the firewall functions are distributed among two or more hosts normally connected in series. This method is more difficult to design and manage, it is also more costly, but can provide significantly greater security by diversifying the firewall defense. A common design approach for this type of architecture using two firewall hosts with a demilitarized network (DMZ) between them separating the Internet and the internal network.
How does a firewall work?
There are two access denial methodologies used by firewalls. A firewall may allow all traffic through unless it meets certain criteria, or it may deny all traffic unless it meets certain criteria (see figure ). The type of criteria used to determine whether traffic should be allowed through varies from one type of firewall to another. Firewalls may be concerned with the type of traffic, or with source or destination addresses and ports. They may also use complex rule bases that analyse the application data to determine if the traffic should be allowed through. How a firewall determines what traffic to let through depends on which network layer it operates at. A discussion on network layers and architecture follows.
What different types of firewalls are?
Firewalls fall into four broad categories: 1)packet filters, 2)circuit level gateways, 3)application level gateways and 4) stateful multilayer inspection firewalls.
Packet filtering firewalls work at the network level of the OSI model, or the IP layer of TCP/IP. They are usually part of a router. A router is a device that receives packets from one network and forwards them to another network. In a packet filtering firewall each packet is compared to a set of criteria before it is forwarded. Depending on the packet and the criteria, the firewall can drop the packet, forward it or send a message to the originator.
Circuit level gateways work at the session layer of the OSI model, or the TCP layer of TCP/IP. They monitor TCP handshaking between packets to determine whether a requested session is legitimate. Information passed to remote computer through a circuit level gateway appears to have originated from the gateway. This is useful for hiding information about protected networks. Circuit level gateways are relatively inexpensive and have the advantage of hiding information about the private network they protect. On the other hand, they do not filter individual packets.
Application level gateways, also called proxies, are similar to circuit-level gateways except that they are application specific. They can filter packets at the application layer of the OSI model. Incoming or outgoing packets cannot access services for which there is no proxy. In plain terms, an application level gateway that is configured to be a web proxy will not allow any ftp, gopher, telnet or other traffic through. Because they examine packets at application layer, they can filter application specific commands such as http:post and get, etc.
Stateful multilayer inspection firewalls combine the aspects of the other three types of firewalls. They filter packets at the network layer, determine whether session packets are legitimate and evaluate contents of packets at the application layer. They allow direct connection between client and host, alleviating the problem caused by the lack of transparency of application level gateways. They rely on algorithms to recognize and process application layer data instead of running application specific proxies. Stateful multilayer inspection firewalls offer a high level of security, good performance and transparency to end users. They are expensive however, and due to their complexity are potentially less secure than simpler types of firewalls if not administered by highly competent personnel

DOS ATTACK


DOS-DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK


Short for denial-of-service attack, a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the TCP/IP protocols. For all known DoS attacks, there are software fixes that system administrators can install to limit the damage caused by the attacks. But, like viruses, new DoS attacks are constantly being dreamed up by hackers.In a denial-of-service (DoS) attack, an attacker attempts to prevent legitimate users from accessing information or services. By targeting your computer and its network connection, or the computers and network of the sites you are trying to use, an attacker may be able to prevent you from accessing email, web sites, online accounts (banking, etc.), or other services that rely on the affected computer.
The most common and obvious type of DoS attack occurs when an attacker "floods" a network with information. When you type a URL for a particular web site into your browser, you are sending a request to that site's computer server to view the page. The server can only process a certain number of requests at once, so if an attacker overloads the server with requests, it can't process your request. This is a "denial of service" because you can't access that site.


What is a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack?

In a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack, an attacker may use your computer to attack another computer. By taking advantage of security vulnerabilities or weaknesses, an attacker could take control of your computer. He or she could then force your computer to send huge amounts of data to a web site or send spam to particular email addresses. The attack is "distributed" because the attacker is using multiple computers, including yours, to launch the denial-of-service attack.


DOS Attacks are of the following different types-: 1. Those that exploit vulnerabilities in the TCP/IP protocols suite. 2. Those that exploit vulnerabilities in the Ipv4 implementation. 3 There are also some brute force attacks, which try to use up all resources of the target system and make the services unusable. Some common vulnerabilities are Ping of Death, Teardrop, SYN attacks and Land Attacks.


Ping of Death

This vulnerability is quite well known and was earlier commonly used to hang remote systems (or even force them to reboot) so that no users can use its services. This exploit no longer works, as almost all system administrators would have upgraded their systems making them safe from such attacks. In this attack, the target system is pinged with a data packet that exceeds the maximum bytes allowed by TCP/IP, which is 65 536. This would have almost always caused the remote system to hang, reboot or crash. This DOS attack could be carried out even through the command line, in the following manner: The following Ping command creates a giant datagram of the size 65540 for Ping. It might hang the victim's computer:

C:\windows>ping -l 65540 .


Teardrop

The Teardrop attack exploits the vulnerability present in the reassembling of data packets. Whenever data is being sent over the Internet, it is broken down into smaller fragments at the source system and put together at the destination system. Say you need to send 4000 bytes of data from one system to the other, then not all of the 4000 bytes is sent at one go. This entire chunk of data is first broken down into smaller parts and divided into a number of packets, with each packet carrying a specified range of data. For Example, say 4000 bytes is divided into 3 packets, then: The first Packet will carry data from 1 byte to 1500 bytes The second Packet will carry data from 1501 bytes to 3000 bytes The third packet will carry data from 3001 bytes to 4000 bytes These packets have an OFFSET field in their TCP header part. This Offset field specifies from which byte to which byte does that particular data packet carries data or the range of data that it is carrying. This along with the sequence numbers helps the destination system to reassemble the data packets in the correct order. Now in this attack, a series of data packets are sent to the target system with overlapping Offset field values. As a result, the target system is not able to reassemble the packets and is forced to crash, hang or reboot. Say for example, consider the following scenario-: Normally a system receives data packets in the following form, with no overlapping Offset values. (1 to 1500 bytes) (1501 to 3000 bytes) (3001 to 4500 bytes) Now in a Teardrop attack, the data packets are sent to the target computer in the following format: (1 to 1500 bytes) (1500 to 3000 bytes) (1001 to 3600 bytes) When the target system receives something like the above, it simply cannot handle it and will crash or hang or reboot.


SYN Attack

The SYN attack exploits TCP/IP's three-way handshake. Thus in order to understand as to how SYN Attacks work, you need to first know how TCP/IP establishes a connection between two systems. Whenever a client wants to establish a connection with a host, then three steps take place. These three steps are referred to as the three-way handshake. In a normal three way handshake, what happens is that, the client sends a SYN packet to the host, the host replies to this packet with a SYN ACK packet. Then the client responds with a ACK (Acknowledgement) packet. This will be clearer after the following depiction of these steps-: 1. Client SYN Packet à Host In the first step the client sends a SYN packet to the host, with whom it wants to establish a three-way connection. The SYN packet requests the remote system for a connection. It also contains the Initial Sequence Number or ISN of the client, which is needed by the host to put back the fragmented data in the correct sequence. 2. Host SYN/ACK Packet à Client In the second step, the host replies to the client with a SYN/ACK packet. This packet acknowledges the SYN packet sent by the client and sends the client its own ISN. 3. Client ACK à Host In the last step the client acknowledges the SYN/ACK packet sent by the host by replying with a ACK packet. These three steps together are known as the 3-way handshake and only when they are completed is a complete TCP/ IP connection established. In a SYN attack, several SYN packets are sent to the server but all these SYN packets have a bad source IP Address. When the target system receives these SYN Packets with Bad IP Addresses, it tries to respond to each one of them with a SYN ACK packet. Now the target system waits for an ACK message to come from the bad IP address. However, as the bad IP does not actually exist, the target system never actually receives the ACK packet. It thus queues up all these requests until it receives an ACK message. The requests are not removed unless and until, the remote target system gets an ACK message. Hence these requests take up or occupy valuable resources of the target machine. To actually affect the target system, a large number of SYN bad IP packets have to be sent. As these packets have a Bad Source IP, they queue up, use up resources and memory or the target system and eventually crash, hang or reboot the system. Land Attacks A Land attack is similar to a SYN attack, the only difference being that instead of a bad IP Address, the IP address of the target system itself is used. This creates an infinite loop between the target system and the target system itself. However, almost all systems have filters or firewalls against such attacks.


UDP Flooding

This kind of flooding is done against two target systems and can be used to stop the services offered by any of the two systems. Both of the target systems are connected to each other, one generating a series of characters for each packet received or in other words, requesting UDP character generating service while the other system, echoes all characters it receives. This creates an infinite non-stopping loop between the two systems, making them useless for any data exchange or service provision.

DOS & BATCH PROGRAMMING TIPS






Ms Dos And Batch File Programming Tricks And Tips

DOS is basically a file caled command.com .It is this file which handles all DOS commands that we give at DOS prompt-such as copy,dir,del,etc.

Batch file programming is nothing but the windows version of unix shell programming.To perform a bulk set of commands over and over again,batch files are used.

Some Important And Hidden Dos Command
1>ANSI.SYS - Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and
reassign keys.
2>ARP - Displays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices
3>AT - Schedule a time to execute commands or programs.
4>COLOR - Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.
5>CONTROL - Open control panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.
6>CTTY - Change the computers input/output devices.
7>EMM386 - Load extended Memory Manager.
8>IFSHLP.SYS - 32-bit file manager.
9>SWITCHES - Remove add functions from MS-DOS.
10>SYS - Transfer system files to disk drive.

Redirection Of OUTPUT:
Send the output of the dos prompt to a file on disk.This can be done using the Redirection operator,> .
Example: c:\windows>net>xyz.txt
c:\windows>help>>xyz.txt
This command will execute the net command and will store the results in the
text file ,xyz.txt.
To print the results: c:\windows>dir*.*>prn

Redirection of Input:
we can also redirect input ,from .txt file to DOS prompt.
Example: c:\windows> more <>

BATCH PROGRAM TO DELETE FILES:

@ECHO OFF
ECHO.
ECHO I am going to delete the following files:
ECHO %1 %2
ECHO.
ECHO CTRL+C to Abort Process
PAUSE
FOR %%A IN (%1 %2) DO DEL %%a
ECHO Killed files.Mission Accomplished By Sonu Mishra.

HACKING HISTORY


HACKERS ATTACKED AGAIN

http://www.monster.com/ has been hacked by the hackers.The Hackers has always attacked the internet from time to time and most of the time they have succeeded.This time,one of the largest job search engine website has been hacked.Over 1.3 million users have been affected in this hacking.Patrick Martin, senior product manager at Symantec, said that the aim of the attack seemed to have been to gain access to user data to send more convincing spam in the hope of stealing financial information.

Great Hacks since yet.

1969
Arpanet, the forerunner of the internet, is founded. The first network has only four nodes.

1971
First e-mail program written by Ray Tomlinson and used on Arpanet which now has 64 nodes.

1980
In October 1980, Arpanet comes to a crashing halt by the accidental distribution of a virus.

1983
The internet is formed when Arpanet is split into military and civilian sections. Wargames, a film that glamorises hacking, is released. Many hackers later claim that the movie inspired them to start playing around with computers and networks.

1986
In August, while following up a 75 cent accounting error in the computer logs at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab at the University of California, Berkeley, network manager Clifford Stoll uncovers evidence of hackers at work. A year-long investigation results in the arrest of the five German hackers who were found responsible for that.

1988
Robert Morris, a graduate student at Cornell University, sets off an internet worm program that quickly replicates itself to over 6,000 hosts bringing almost the whole network to a halt. Morris is arrested soon afterwards and is punished by being fined $10,000, sentenced to three years on probation and ordered to do 400 hours of community service.
Worms are different from virus.

1989
Kevin Mitnick: Arrested twice for hacking.He is convicted of stealing software from Digital Equipment and codes for long-distance lines from US telephone company MCI. He is the first person convicted under a new law against gaining access to an interstate computer network for criminal purposes. He spent a one-year prison term. At the Cern laboratory for research in high-energy physics in Geneva, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau develop the protocols that will become the world wide web.

1993
Kevin Poulsen, Ronald Austin and Justin Peterson were charged for conspiring to rig a radio phone-in competition to win prizes. The trio seized control of phone lines to the radio station ensuring only their calls got through. The group allegedly netted two Porsches, $20,000 in cash and holidays in Hawaii.

1994
A 16-year-old music student called Richard Pryce, better known by the hacker alias Datastream Cowboy, is arrested and charged with breaking into hundreds of computers including those at the Griffiths Air Force base, Nasa and the Korean Atomic Research Institute. His online mentor, "Kuji", is never found. Also this year, a group directed by Russian hackers breaks into the computers of Citibank and transfers more than $10 million from customers' accounts. Eventually, Citibank recovered all but $400,000 of the pilfered money.

1995
In February, Kevin Mitnick is arrested for a second time. He is charged with stealing 20,000 credit card numbers. He eventually spends four years in jail and on his release his parole conditions demand that he avoid contact with computers and mobile phones.
On November 15, Christopher Pile becomes the first person to be jailed for writing and distributing a computer virus. Mr Pile, who called himself the Black Baron, was sentenced to 18 months in jail. The US General Accounting Office reveals that US Defense Department computers sustained 250,000 attacks in 1995.

1996
Popular websites are attacked and defaced in an attempt to protest about the treatment of Kevin Mitnick. The internet now has over 16 million hosts and is growing rapidly.

1997
Popular Internet search engine Yahoo! is hit by hackers claiming a "logic bomb" will go off in the PCs of Yahoo!'s users on Christmas Day 1997 unless Kevin Mitnick is released from prison. "There is no virus," Yahoo! spokeswoman Diane Hunt said. Hackers pierce security in Microsoft's NT operating system to illustrate its weaknesses.
AOHell is released, a freeware application that allows a burgeoning community of unskilled hackers--or script kiddies--to wreak havoc on America Online. For days, hundreds of thousands of AOL users find their mailboxes flooded with multi-megabyte mail bombs and their chat rooms disrupted with spam messages.

1998
Anti-hacker ad runs during Super Bowl XXXII. The Network Associates ad, costing $1.3-million for 30 seconds, shows two Russian missile silo crewmen worrying that a computer order to launch missiles may have come from a hacker. They decide to blow up the world anyway.
In January, the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics is inundated for days with hundreds of thousands of fake information requests, a hacker attack called "spamming."
Hackers break into United Nation's Children Fund Web site, threatening a "holocaust" if Kevin Mitnick is not freed.
Hackers claim to have broken into a Pentagon network and stolen software for a military satellite system. They threaten to sell the software to terrorists.
The U.S. Justice Department unveils National Infrastructure Protection Center, which is given a mission to protect the nation's telecommunications, technology and transportation systems from hackers.
Hacker group L0pht, in testimony before Congress, warns it could shut down nationwide access to the Internet in less than 30 minutes. The group urges stronger security measures.

The hacking group Cult of the Dead Cow releases its Trojan horse program, Back Orifice--a powerful hacking tool--at Def Con. Once a hacker installs the Trojan horse on a machine running Windows 95 or Windows 98, the program allows unauthorized remote access of the machine.

1999
David Smith,The Creator of the Melissa virus.In March, the Melissa virus goes on the rampage and wreaks havoc with computers worldwide. After a short investigation, the FBI tracks down and arrests the writer of the virus, a 29-year-old New Jersey computer programmer, David L Smith.

2000
In February, some of the most popular websites in the world such as Amazon and Yahoo are almost overwhelmed by being flooded with bogus requests for data.
In May, the ILOVEYOU virus is unleashed and clogs computers worldwide. Over the coming months, variants of the virus are released that manage to catch out companies that didn't do enough to protect themselves.
In October, Microsoft admits that its corporate network has been hacked and source code for future Windows products has been seen.

2001
DNS Attack
Microsoft becomes the prominent victim of a new type of hack that attacks the domain name server. In these denial-of-service attacks, the DNS paths that take users to Microsoft's Web sites are corrupted. The hack is detected within a few hours, but prevents millions of users from reaching Microsoft Web pages for two days.


2004

NEW YORK (Reuters) - A 22-year-old California man pleaded guilty Thursday to hacking into the New York Times Co. computer network and entering a database containing personal information about Op-Ed page contributors.


2005

NEW YORK - Saying it's been a bad week in the realm of information security is putting it lightly. The incident that got the most attention, mostly because it involved compromising pictures of the ever-overexposed Paris Hilton, was the ever-widening fallout from a hacking attack. The target was the servers that wireless carrier T-Mobile uses to run services for users of its Sidekick wireless devices. Paris Hilton: Her Sidekick wireless device was the target of a hacking attack, and now her friends are angry.


WASHINGTON — Cisco Systems Inc. (CSCO) said on Tuesday authorities in Sweden had detained a person for stealing its source code, the basic instructions for the machines that direct Internet traffic around the globe.
"We are aware that a person has been detained in Sweden related to the IOS source code theft and are encouraged by this action," the San Jose, Calif., company said in a statement.


2006

CHICAGO _ A computer consultant working in the FBI's Springfield, Ill., offices used free programs available on the Internet to breach secure areas of the bureau's computer system and find administrators' passwords, including one belonging to FBI Director Robert Mueller. Joseph Thomas Colon, 28, who was living in Springfield was the hero.


LOS ANGELES: A Romanian man has been indicted on charges of hacking into more than 150 U.S. government computers, causing disruptions that cost NASA, the Energy Department and the Navy nearly $1.5 million (€1.1 million).


2007

CARACAS, Venezuela — A 17-year-old has been detained by Venezuelan authorities after hacking into multiple government Web sites and posting playful photos of President Hugo Chavez and his close ally, Cuba's Fidel Castro.
The boy modified 23 Web sites _ including those of the vice president's office, the National Guard and the investigative police _ in late December, said Oswaldo Guevara, the investigative police's head of computer-related crimes.


LONDON: A British court on Friday sentenced a tabloid journalist to four months in prison for hacking into royal officials' voicemail systems.
Judge Peter Henry Gross said he had no option but to hand a prison sentence to Clive Goodman, 49, the royal editor of the News of the World, describing his crime as "reprehensible in the extreme."


Symantec discovers Monster hack :Hackers have stolen the personal information — including home addresses and phone numbers – of several hundred thousand users of online job portal Monster.com.
According to online security firm Symantec Corp., hackers over the weekend used a Trojan Horse virus called Infostealer.Monstres to break into Monster accounts maintained by recruiters and steal their credentials. The hackers used that information to log into Monster.com as prospective employers and gleaned personal details, including names, addresses and phone numbers, from individuals who had posted resumes to the site.


INDIAN INDEPENDENCE






India in IT Field Since Independence




  • India celebrated the 60th anniversary of its independence from British rule Wednesday in a triumphant mood, with many here feeling the country is finally taking its rightful place as a major global player.

    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said "I assure you that for each one of you, and for our country, the best is yet to come," on the eve of his traditional Independence Day speech.


    IT in India
    Information technology essentially refers to the digital processing, storage and communication of information of all kindsTherefore, IT can potentially be used in every sector of the economy. The true impact of IT on growth and productivity continues to be a matter of debate, even in the United States, which has been the leader and largest adopter of IT.However, there is no doubt that the IT sector has been a dynamic one in many developed countries, and India has stood out as a developing country where IT, in the guise of software exports, has grown dramatically, despite the country’s relatively low level of income and development. An example of IT’s broader impact comes from the case of so-called IT-enabled services, a broad category covering many different kinds of data processing and voice interactions that use some IT infrastructure as inputs, but do not necessarily involve the production of IT outputs. India’s figures for the size of the IT sector typically include such services.
    A popular alternative is ICT, for information and communications technology: the World Bank, for example, favors this term.
    To give a sampling of research in the US, David (2000) emphasizes the lag with which any new technology affects productivity; Gordon (2000) offers a skeptical view of the impact of IT on productivity, arguing that the empirical evidence indicates that the impact is narrow and limited; Jorgenson, in the most comprehensive analysis, finds that IT has contributed significantly to total factor productivity growth (TFPG) in the US. Of course, higher TFPG implies higher overall growth, ceteris paribus.
    Indicators of the strength of India’s software export capabilities include the depth of its base, and the breadth of its global reach. There are over 2,500 Indian software exporters, and while only the top five (TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Satyam and HCL) are – or are approaching the status of – global brands, they together account for only about 35% of software exports.The United States remains by far the largest market for India’s software exports, its share of India’s software exports being 63%, with Europe coming in at 26%, and Japan and the rest of the world accounting for the remaining 11% (NASSCOM, 2002). Individual firms and organizations such as NASSCOM have shown themselves to be adept at targeting markets with substantial growth potential, such as Germany, and the reputations built in exporting to the US are proving important.

    IT-enabled services (ITES) have shown the strongest growth in the last two years. They include a variety of types of service, ranging from customer call centers, to accounting services and other business process outsourcing, to GIS and engineering services. Thus the required degree of technical sophistication of the workforce and the level of use of IT can vary widely. In fact, the three categories I have mentioned make up most of India’s ITES exports, with the first two showing high growth and representing over 60% of the total of Rs. 71 billion.
    These figures are calculated from data in NASSCOM (2002), and exclude IT enabled services.


    Table 1: Falling Costs of Computing ($)

    Costs of computing 1970 1999
    1 Mhz of processing power 7,601 0.17
    1 megabit of storage 5,257 0.17
    1 trillion bits sent 150,000 0.12

    This significant boost to the country's Internet plans can be accounted to the Government, which has announced several landmark decisions that have helped increase Internet penetration in India. The Internet survey conducted in 68 cities / towns in India in 2002 (accounting for over 92 percent of the total Internet users in the country) on Internet Usage Trends by different agencies came up with some interesting findings:

  • More than 200 cities and towns in India have Internet connectivity.

  • As of Sep 2002, there was a PC base of 6.5 million PCs. Out of these, there were more than 4.3 million machines that had Pentium II and above processors (i.e. machines which could be effectively used for Internet).

  • More than 120 private ISPs would be fully operational by June 31, 2001 (out of the projected 500 licenses to be given by that date).

  • At least 12 private international gateways for Internet are expected in the same period. Seven private international gateways are already operational by December 2000.

  • More than 86 percent of top 100 corporate companies (who responded to the survey) have endorsed the Internet and e-commerce as being an integral part of their corporate strategic framework for next year.

  • The capital cities (New Delhi and other state capitals) today account for 79 percent of Internet connections across the country.

  • More than 81% of PC sales in financial year 2001 were driven by the need to access the Internet

  • 91% of India's corporate websites are located overseas.

  • There has been a substantial increase in Internet Access through all ages. More than 11% of all 40 year olds access the Internet now. The most widespread usage is found among the 18-24 year age group.

  • The male:female ratio of Internet Users has changed from 82% of males to 18% of females in June 1999, to 74% males to 26% females at the time of this study.

  • Approximately 16,00,000 households are connected to the Internet.

  • Of all Internet Users, the corporate/professional segment forms the largest at 43% followed by students at 38% .

  • More than half (59.2%) of the Internet user population use it for information seeking purposes, 11.3% use it for education purposes and 8.2% use it for entertainment.


    Software Technology Parks Of India
    Software Technology parks of India - Thiruvananthapuram (STPI-T) came into existence in 1992. Since then, more than 240 companies have been registered and 87 companies are exporting software regularly to countires like US, UK, Japan & Germany and middle East. Contribution from STPI has been mainly towards extraordinary support provided to the software industry and its fast responsiveness. It has helped in changing the trend from onsite to offshore development by providing state-of-the-art data communication facility through dedicated satellite earth station at various STPI centres.It has six local IT centers located at Kozhikode, Kollam, Kottayam, Kochi, Trishur and Palayad. Its software exports in 2002 crossed US $ 200 Million.

    INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION

    Indian space program driven by vision of Dr Vikram Sarabhai considered as the father of Indian Space Program. Main objective of space program includes development of satellites, launch vehicles, Sounding Rockets and associated ground systems. Crossed several major milestones. Experimental phase included Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Satellite Telecommunication Experiment (STEP), remote sensing application projects, satellites like Aryabhata, Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE and launch vehicles, SLV-3 and ASLV. Present operational space systems include Indian National Satellite (INSAT) for tele-communication, television broadcasting, meteorology and disaster warning and Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) for resources monitoring and management. INSAT-2E, The latest of the INSAT-2 series of satellites built by ISRO, is a multi-purpose satellite for telecommunication, television broadcasting and meteorological services. The satellite is located at 83 degrees east longitude in geostationary orbit. INSAT-2E carries seventeen transponders-12 operating in the normal C-band frequency and 5 in the lower extend C-band. Seven of the normal C-band transponders have wide beam coverage and the remaining have zonal coverage.INSAT-2E is launched by European Arian Launch Vehicle to a Geosynchronous transfer orbit with a perigee of 200 km and an apogee of 35,980 km.

Block A Website On Your Computer.

BLOCK UNWANTED SITE ON YOUR COMPUTER

Hey Friends,want to block any site from opening on your computer.If you want to block some site in windows O.S. to be browse from your computer.

Then do following steps.........

open the location..
C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\etc
you will find a hosts file.First backup the hosts file.
Open hosts file there, from the notepad.
At the end of the line you can see as per below.

127.0.0.1 localhost

Append the following line at the end
127.0.0.1 BlockSitename.com Replace the BlockSitename.com with the site name that you want to block.

example......

If you want to restrict http://www.yahoo.com/ then in the hosts file do this....
127.0.0.1 http://www.yahoo.com/
or
0.0.0.0 http://www.yahoo.com/

as ip 0.0.0.0 means nothing.


Then go to Start->Run-> type: ipconfig /flushdns to restart the network.

Note: That will only stop the domain name to go to the website but if you know the IP address of the site from the gnsstuff or whois then you can brose your site.

ATM

AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINE

As is often the case with inventions, many inventors contribute to the history of an invention. In the case of the ATM, Don Wetzel invented the first successful and modern ATM in the USA, however he was not first inventor to create an ATM. In 1939, Luther George Simjian started patenting an earlier and not-so-successful version of an ATM. Read about Luther George Simjian here.

There are 3 major types of Automatic teller machines.
1> IBM
The first of these (and the most popular) is the IBM model. This is easilydistinguised from the others by the IBM logo in the top right hand corner ofthe front of the machine.This unit features a touch sensitive keypad and a 1 line display with a visorthat moves up and down. (The newer models have a 5 line display)..

2> NCR
The second unit is the NCR unit, which is MUCH smaller than than the IBM frontpanel. This unit has a small VDU as well as a touch sensitive keypad. The onlybanks that seem to be using this unit in Australia is the 'STATE BANK' ofVictoria, so you will not see many of them around.

3> PHILIPS
The third and final unit is made by Philips as is only used by the creditunions or Building Societys. This is usually known as 'CASHCARD'. These unitsfeature a push-button keyboard and a VDU (like the NCR).
All these above units provide the same functions...

>>How Do ATMs Work?
An ATM is simply a data terminal with two input and four output devices. Like any other data terminal, the ATM has to connect to, and communicate through, a host processor. The host processor is analogous to an Internet service provider (ISP) in that it is the gateway through which all the various ATM networks become available to the cardholder (the person wanting the cash). Most host processors can support either leased-line or dial-up machines. Leased-line machines connect directly to the host processor through a four-wire, point-to-point, dedicated telephone line. Dial-up ATMs connect to the host processor through a normal phone line using a modem and a toll-free number, or through an Internet service provider using a local access number dialed by modem. Leased-line ATMs are preferred for very high-volume locations because of their thru-put capability, and dial-up ATMs are preferred for retail merchant locations where cost is a greater factor than thru-put. The initial cost for a dial-up machine is less than half that for a leased-line machine. The monthly operating costs for dial-up are only a fraction of the costs for leased-line. The host processor may be owned by a bank or financial institution, or it may be owned by an independent service provider. Bank-owned processors normally support only bank-owned machines, whereas the independent processors support merchant-owned machines.

>>Parts of the Machine
You're probably one of the millions who has used an ATM. As you know, an ATM has two input devices:

1>> Card reader - The card reader captures the account information stored on the magnetic stripe on the back of an ATM/debit or credit card. The host processor uses this information to route the transaction to the cardholder's bank.
2 >>Keypad - The keypad lets the cardholder tell the bank what kind of transaction is required (cash withdrawal, balance inquiry, etc.) and for what amount. Also, the bank requires the cardholder's personal identification number (PIN) for verification. Federal law requires that the PIN block be sent to the host processor in encrypted form. And an ATM has four output devices:
1) Speaker - The speaker provides the cardholder with auditory feedback when a key is pressed. 2) Display screen - The display screen prompts the cardholder through each step of the transaction process. Leased-line machines commonly use a monochrome or color CRT (cathode ray tube) display. Dial-up machines commonly use a monochrome or color LCD.
3) Receipt printer - The receipt printer provides the cardholder with a paper receipt of the transaction.
4) Cash dispenser - The heart of an ATM is the safe and cash-dispensing mechanism. The entire bottom portion of most small ATMs is a safe that contains the cash.

>>Sensing Bills The cash-dispensing mechanism has an electric eye that counts each bill as it exits the dispenser. The bill count and all of the information pertaining to a particular transaction is recorded in a journal. The journal information is printed out periodically and a hard copy is maintained by the machine owner for two years. Whenever a cardholder has a dispute about a transaction, he or she can ask for a journal printout showing the transaction, and then contact the host processor. If no one is available to provide the journal printout, the cardholder needs to notify the bank or institution that issued the card and fill out a form that will be faxed to the host processor. It is the host processor's responsibility to resolve the dispute. Besides the electric eye that counts each bill, the cash-dispensing mechanism also has a sensor that evaluates the thickness of each bill. If two bills are stuck together, then instead of being dispensed to the cardholder they are diverted to a reject bin. The same thing happens with a bill that is excessively worn, torn, or folded. The number of reject bills is also recorded so that the machine owner can be aware of the quality of bills that are being loaded into the machine. A high reject rate would indicate a problem with the bills or with the dispenser mechanism.

>>ATM Security
ATMs keep your personal identification number (PIN) and other information safe by using encryption software such as Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard). But there are lots of things that you can do to protect your information and your money at an ATM.Many banks recommend that you select your own PIN. Visa offers the following PIN tips:
Don't write down your PIN. If you must write it down, do not store it in your wallet or purse. Make your PIN a series of letters or numbers that you can easily remember, but that cannot easily be associated with you personally. Avoid using birth dates, initials, house numbers or your phone number. Visa also recommends the following tips for safe ATM usage:
Store your ATM card in your purse or wallet, in an area where it won't get scratched or bent. Get your card out BEFORE you approach the ATM. You'll be more vulnerable to attack if you're standing in front of the ATM, fumbling through your wallet for your card. Stand directly in front of the ATM keypad when typing in your PIN. This prevents anyone waiting to use the machine from seeing your personal information. After your transaction, take your receipt, card and money away. Do not stand in front of the machine and count your money. If you are using a drive-up ATM, get your vehicle as close to the machine as possible to prevent anyone from coming up to your window. Also make sure that your doors are locked before you drive up to the machine. Do not leave your car running while using a walk-up ATM. Take your keys with you and lock the doors before your transaction. If someone or something makes you uncomfortable, cancel your transaction and leave the machine immediately. Follow up with your bank to make sure the transaction was cancelled and alert the bank to any suspicious people. Many retail merchants close their store at night. It is strongly recommended that they pull the money out of the machine when they close, just like they do with their cash registers, and leave the door to the security compartment wide open like they do with an empty cash-register drawer. This makes it obvious to any would-be thief that this is not payday.
It's important to use a well-lit, public ATM machine at night. For safety reasons, ATM users should seek out a machine that is located in a well-lighted public place. Federal law requires that only the last four digits of the cardholder's account number be printed on the transaction receipt so that when a receipt is left at the machine location, the account number is secure. However, the entry of your four-digit personal identification number (PIN) on the keypad should still be obscured from observation, which can be done by positioning your hand and body in such a way that the PIN entry cannot be recorded by store cameras or store employees. The cardholder's PIN is not recorded in the journal, but the account number is. If you protect your PIN, you protect your account.

Information on the Plastic Cards

The Plastic Cards that you put into these cash carrying monsters have a Numberthat is printed on the front of the card (which is also the same number, thatis stored on the MAGNETIC STRIP on the back of the card.)What do these numbers mean????? Well here is some information on them...The Numbers are split up into 2 groups, the first group ALWAYS containsSIX numbers while the second group contains anywhere between 6 to 13 numbers.EG) 560192 3012565214782\ /\ / __ This 3 digit number identifies the Bank. __ This is the Australian ID code and ALL banks have this.Some ID's for banks............

018 - State Bank of India
192 - Westpac Banking Corporation
251 - National Australia Bank
220 - Commenwealth Bank

The Second part of the number seems to be a jumble of digits for 6 to 13, whichonly seem to make sense to the banks computer.The banks computer simply looks the second number up in a Table and finds outyour assigned PIN number (A password for your card consisting of 4 digits), and any other information. eg) Your savings account no. Cheque a/c etc.Since the four Digit PIN (Personal Identification Numbers) range from 0000 to9999, then more than one person has the same PIN number for his card. (Banks dohave more that 10,000 customers !!)Okay now that we have some simple background information we can learn how to'defeat' the system..

E-MAIL DETAILS.

Know E-mail Sender's Detail

Friends, after reading this article you'll be able to know,who is sending you the message or the forge mail.

Where Email Comes From
Superficially, it appears that email is passed directly from the sender's machine to the recipient's. Normally, this isn't true; a typical piece of email passes through at least four computers during its lifetime.


This happens because most organizations have a dedicated machine to handle mail, called a "mail server"; it's normally not the same machine that users are looking at when they read their mail. In the common case of an ISP whose users dial in from their home computers, the "client" computer is the user's home machine, and the "server" is some machine that belongs to the ISP. When a user sends mail, she normally composes the message on her own computer, then sends it off to her ISP's mail server. At this point her computer is finished with the job, but the mail server still has to deliver the message. It does this by finding the recipient's mail server, talking to that server and delivering the message. It then sits on that second mail server until the recipient comes along to read his mail, when he retrieves it onto his own computer, normally deleting it from the mail server in the process.


How to know email headers


Steps to open headers for various email clients and services like Outlook, Hotmail, Yahoo, AOL,...


Yahoo Mail
• Log into your Yahoo! Mail account.
• Click the "Options" link on the navigation bar.
• Click the "General Preferences" link.
• Go to the paragraph titled Messages and Locate the Show Headers heading and select "All."
• Click the "Save" button to put your new settings into effect.

  • Gmail
    Log into your Gmail Account

  • open the Email whose headers you want to view

  • Click on the more options link in the message next to the date of the email. If the link says hide options then do not worry u have alreadyclicked on the more options link.

  • Now click the link called show original.

  • This will bring up a new window with headers and the body of the message.


Hotmail
• Log into Hotmail.
• Click on "Options" tab on the top navigation bar.• Click on the "Mail" link on the navigation bar on the left.
• Click on the "Mail Display Settings" link.
• Change the "Message Headers" option to "Full".
• Click the "OK" button.

AOL Mail

If the email is sent from anywhere OTHER then AOL, and you are receiving it in AOL, then open the email you want to trace, or have your client open the email, and look for the link Details. This link is usually just below the To:email in the email message. If the email is sent from an AOL user to another AOL user then our Reverse AOL Screenname search can get you the sender's information.

Outlook Express 4, 5 and 6
Start by opening the message in its own window (or when viewing the message in the preview pane). Then:
With the keyboard:
CTRL-F3 (Message Source Window)
CTRL-A (select all)
CTRL-C (copy)
ALT-F4 (close)
With the mouse:
Click the "File" menu
Click "Properties"
Click the "Details" tab
Click "Message Source"
Highlight, copy and paste everything from this window (Ctrl-A, Ctrl-C)
With viruses, worms and trojans being spread via email, many users now work with the preview screen in Outlook Express turned off. Viewing the contents of email in the preview screen is no different than opening the message. If the email has malicious content, it may execute in the preview screen.

The Importance of Received: Headers

In the above examples ,we've seen that the Received: headers provide a detailed log of a message's history, and so make it possible to draw some conclusions about the origin of a piece of email even when other headers have been forged. This section explores some details associated with these singularly important headers, and in particular how to circumvent common forgery techniques.
Unquestionably, the single most valuable forgery protection in the Received: headers is the information logged by the receiving host from the sender. Recall that the sender can lie about its identity (by putting garbage in its HELO command to the receiver); fortunately, modern mail transfer programs are able to detect such false information and correct it.

LINUX-I


LINUX BASICS



Linux is an open source,free software operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus had an interest in Minix, a small UNIX system, and decided to develop a system that exceeded the Minix standards. He began his work in 1991 when he released version 0.02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The kernel, at the heart of all Linux systems, is developed and released under the GNU General Public License and its source code is freely available to everyone. It is this kernel that forms the base around which a Linux operating system is developed. There are now literally hundreds of companies and organizations and an equal number of individuals that have released their own versions of operating systems based on the Linux kernel. More information on the kernel can be found at our sister site, LinuxHQ and at the official Linux Kernel Archives. The current full-featured version is Red Hat 9 is coming..
The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software: the GNU system. Variants of the GNU operating system, which use the kernel called Linux, are now widely used; though these systems are often referred to as “Linux”, they are more accurately called GNU/Linux systems.


What is Free Software?


“Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price. Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the software:
•The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
•The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
•The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
•The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.


Linux vs. Windows Design


•Windows has only recently evolved from a single-user design to a multi-user model. Linux is based on a long history of well fleshed-out multi-user design.
•Windows is monolithic, not modular, by design but Linux is mostly modular by design.
•Windows depends too heavily on an RPC model, Linux does not depend upon RPC to function, and services are usually configured not to use RPC by default.
•Linux servers are ideal for headless non-local administration, whereas Windows focuses on its familiar graphical desktop interface.


HACKING THROUGH WEB BROWSER


WEB BROWSER SECURITY


"Sorry dear readers,could not post new topics for the long time.I was really very busy those days.I get the time today to write something interesting,but i'm, still very busy,but I promise,I'll come back soon with a lot of new and interesting topics for all of our readers."


Now,come to our topic,friends,the web browsers like Internet Explorer,Mozilla etc can be used to fetch your secret documents and files.Now,let's learn this is possible.


A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network.Web browsers communicate with Web servers primarily using HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) to fetch webpages. HTTP allows Web browsers to submit information to Web servers as well as fetch Web pages from them. The most commonly used HTTP is HTTP/1.1, which is fully defined in RFC 2616. HTTP/1.1 has its own required standards that Internet Explorer does not fully support, but most other current-generation Web browsers do.


HOW THIS COULD BE USED
Pasco (the Latin word for "Browse") is a command line tool that runs on Unix or Windows and can reconstruct the internal structures for IE Index.dat files. Pasco accepts an Index.dat file, reconstructs the data, and outputs the information in a delimited text file format. This format is useful when you need to import the data into a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. Figure 1 shows Pasco in action.
Pasco shows that IE saves the following fields from a single web site visit in the Index.dat file: The record type - Pasco signifies the activity is either a URL that was browsed or a website that redirected the user's browser to another site.

>The URL - The actual website that the user visited.

>Modified Time - The last moment in time the website was modified.

>Access Time - The moment in time the user browsed the website.

>Filename - The local file name that contains a copy of the URL listed.

>Directory - The local directory you can find the "Filename" above.

>HTTP Headers - The HTTP headers the user received when he browsed the URL.

Nowdays,most websites use CGI scripts .These scripts are located in the /cgi-bin directory.These scripts can be downloaded for further examination or even use these scripts to steal passwords to access password protected parts of the website.


So,simply type the following in the location bar of your browser,and observe what you get-


The most common way to get the password file is to FTP anonymously and check if it in the /etc directory access to the passwd is restricted or not.If it is not restricted then download the file and firstly unshadow it and then crack it.First you need to find a box t hat is running the cgi-bin/phf file on their system. A great way to find out without trial and error is to go to http://www.altavista.com/ and just search on cgi-bin AND perl.exe or cgi-bin AND phf.


>>Finger box hacking: Lets say you wanted to break into somewhere like .... hmmmm AOL. The first thing we would do is type in their web site in the URL: http://www.aol.com./ The next thing we would do is add /cgi-bin/finger to the web URL so it would look like thisHttp://www.aol.com/cgi-bin/finger. If the finger gateway is operational a box should appear for you to enter the name you want to finger. If it is operational you have a chance to receive the etc/passwd file. Next thing you will probably want to do is search for a mailto on the web page... just scan the page for any mailto refs. Go back to the finger box and type in this query......

nobody@nowhere.org This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it /bin/mail

me@junk.org This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it

8086 MICROPROCESSOR



The 8086 is a 16-bit,N-channel,HMOS microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture.The 8086 draws 360mA on 5V.Its frequency range is 4 - 10 MHz.


The 8086 was intended as a temporary substitute for the ambitious iAPX 432 project in an attempt to draw attention from other manufacturers (such as Motorola, Zilog, and National Semiconductor) less delayed 16 and 32-bit processors. Both the architecture and the physical chip were therefore developed very quickly, and were based on the earlier 8080 and 8085 designs with a similar register set. The chip had around 29,000 transistors (many for microcode) and would also function as a continuation of the 8085; although not directly source code compatible, it was designed so that assembly language for the 8085 could be automatically converted into (sub-optimal) 8086 assembly source, usually with little or no hand-editing. However, the 8086 design was expanded to support full 16-bit processing instead of the fairly basic 16-bit capabilities of the Intel 8080/8085.

8086 MEMORY

Its Memory is divided into two parts:a)even bank and,b)odd bank.Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. The total addressable memory size is 1MB KB. As the most of the processor instructions use 16-bit pointers the processor can effectively address only 64 KB of memory. To access memory outside of 64 KB the CPU uses special segment registers to specify where the code, stack and data 64 KB segments are positioned within 1 MB of memory.

Physical memory address pointed by segment:offset pair is calculated as:
address = ( * 16) +

Program memory - program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump and call instructions can be used for short jumps within currently selected 64 KB code segment, as well as for far jumps anywhere within 1 MB of memory. All conditional jump instructions can be used to jump within approximately +127 - -127 bytes from current instruction.

Data memory - the processor can access data in any one out of 4 available segments, which limits the size of accessible memory to 256 KB (if all four segments point to different 64 KB blocks). Accessing data from the Data, Code, Stack or Extra segments can be usually done by prefixing instructions with the DS:, CS:, SS: or ES: (some registers and instructions by default may use the ES or SS segments instead of DS segment).

Stack memory can be placed anywhere in memory. The stack can be located at odd memory addresses, but it is not recommended for performance reasons (see "Data Memory" above).

Reserved locations:
0000h - 03FFh are reserved for interrupt vectors. Each interrupt vector is a 32-bit pointer in format segment:offset.
FFFF0h - FFFFFh - after RESET the processor always starts program execution at the FFFF0h address.

General Purpose Registers

Accumulator register consists of 2 8-bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register AX. AL in this case contains the low-order byte of the word, and AH contains the high-order byte. Accumulator can be used for I/O operations and string manipulation.

Base register consists of 2 8-bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register BX. BL in this case contains the low-order byte of the word, and BH contains the high-order byte. BX register usually contains a data pointer used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.

Count register consists of 2 8-bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register CX. When combined, CL register contains the low-order byte of the word, and CH contains the high-order byte. Count register can be used as a counter in string manipulation and shift/rotate instructions.

Data register consists of 2 8-bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register DX. When combined, DL register contains the low-order byte of the word, and DH contains the high-order byte. Data register can be used as a port number in I/O operations. In integer 32-bit multiply and divide instruction the DX register contains high-order word of the initial or resulting number.

The following registers are both general and index registers:
Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16-bit register pointing to program stack.
Base Pointer (BP) is a 16-bit register pointing to data in stack segment. BP register is usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.
Source Index (SI) is a 16-bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a source data address in string manipulation instructions.
Destination Index (DI) is a 16-bit register. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data address in string manipulation instructions.
Other registers:
Instruction Pointer (IP) is a 16-bit register.

Flags is a 16-bit register containing 9 1-bit flags:
Overflow Flag (OF) - set if the result is too large positive number, or is too small negative number to fit into destination operand.
Direction Flag (DF) - if set then string manipulation instructions will auto-decrement index registers. If cleared then the index registers will be auto-incremented.
Interrupt-enable Flag (IF) - setting this bit enables maskable interrupts.
Single-step Flag (TF) - if set then single-step interrupt will occur after the next instruction.
Sign Flag (SF) - set if the most significant bit of the result is set.
Zero Flag (ZF) - set if the result is zero.
Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to bits 0-3 in the AL register.
Parity Flag (PF) - set if parity (the number of "1" bits) in the low-order byte of the result is even.
Carry Flag (CF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to the most significant bit during last result calculation.

SEGMENTS:


Code segment (CS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with processor instructions. The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register. CS register cannot be changed directly. The CS register is automatically updated during far jump, far call and far return instructions.

Stack segment (SS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program stack. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment. SS register can be changed directly using POP instruction.

Data segment (DS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program data. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment. DS register can be changed directly using POP and LDS instructions.
Extra segment (ES) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment, usually with program data. By default, the processor assumes that the DI register references the ES segment in string manipulation instructions. ES register can be changed directly using POP and LES instructions.
It is possible to change default segments used by general and index registers by prefixing instructions with a CS, SS, DS or ES prefix.




Addressing Modes Of 8086:




Implied - the data value/data address is implicitly associated with the instruction.
Register - references the data in a register or in a register pair.


mov d,s


add bx,ax
Immediate - the data is provided in the instruction.


mov bh,32
Direct - the instruction operand specifies the memory address where data is located.


mov al,[0005]
Register indirect - instruction specifies a register containing an address, where data is located. This addressing mode works with SI, DI, BX and BP registers.


mov si,[0005]


mov al,[si]
Based - 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register (BX or BP), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides.


mov al,[si][bx]
Indexed - 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides.
Based Indexed - the contents of a base register (BX or BP) is added to the contents of an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides.
Based Indexed with displacement - 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register (BX or BP) and index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides.

Instruction Set:

8086 instruction set consists of the following instructions:
Data moving instructions.
Arithmetic - add, subtract, increment, decrement, convert byte/word and compare.
Logic - AND, OR, exclusive OR, shift/rotate and test.
String manipulation - load, store, move, compare and scan for byte/word.
Control transfer - conditional, unconditional, call subroutine and return from subroutine.
Input/Output instructions.
Other - setting/clearing flag bits, stack operations, software interrupts, etc.

Interrupts:

The processor has the following interrupts:
INTR is a maskable hardware interrupt. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled using STI/CLI instructions or using more complicated method of updating the FLAGS register with the help of the POPF instruction. When an interrupt occurs, the processor stores FLAGS register into stack, disables further interrupts, fetches from the bus one byte representing interrupt type, and jumps to interrupt processing routine address of which is stored in location 4 * . Interrupt processing routine should return with the IRET instruction.
NMI is a non-maskable interrupt. Interrupt is processed in the same way as the INTR interrupt. Interrupt type of the NMI is 2, i.e. the address of the NMI processing routine is stored in location 0008h. This interrupt has higher priority then the maskable interrupt.
Software interrupts can be caused by:
INT instruction - breakpoint interrupt. This is a type 3 interrupt.
INT instruction - any one interrupt from available 256 interrupts.
INTO instruction - interrupt on overflow
Single-step interrupt - generated if the TF flag is set. This is a type 1 interrupt. When the CPU processes this interrupt it clears TF flag before calling the interrupt processing routine.
Processor exceptions: divide error (type 0), unused opcode (type 6) and escape opcode (type 7).
Software interrupt processing is the same as for the hardware interrupts.

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CRYPTOGRAPHY-II



MODERN CRYPTOGRAPHY

Hi Friends,in the last post we have discussed about the Traditional Cryptography.Now we'll discuss about the Modern Cryptography.

Before Discussing this let's know about "One-Time Pads".

One-Time Pads


In this One-Time Pads technique,first we choose random bit string as key.Then convert the plaintext into a bit string.Finally,compute the EXCLUSIVE OR of these two strings,bit by bit.The resulting ciphertext can't be broken,because every possible plaintext is an equally probable candidate.The ciphertext gives the cryptanalyst no information at all.


Modern Cryptography uses the same basic ideas as Traditional Cryptography,transposition and substitution,but its emphasis is different.Traditionally,cryptographers have used simple algorithms and relied on very long keys for their security.Nowadays,reverse is true:the object is to make the encryption algorithm so complex and involuted that even if the cryptanalyst acquires the encrypted data,he we'll not be able to make any sense of it.


Secret-Key Algorithms:


With secret key cryptography, a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. As shown in Figure, the sender uses the key (or some set of rules) to encrypt the plaintext and sends the ciphertext to the receiver. The receiver applies the same key (or ruleset) to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. Because a single key is used for both functions, secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption.With this form of cryptography, it is obvious that the key must be known to both the sender and the receiver; that, in fact, is the secret. The biggest difficulty with this approach, of course, is the distribution of the key.Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block ciphers. Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. A block cipher is so-called because the scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the same key on each block. In general, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different ciphertext in a stream cipher.

Secret key cryptography algorithms that are in use today include:

Data Encryption Standard (DES): The most common SKC scheme used today, DES was designed by IBM in the 1970s and adopted by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) [now the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)] in 1977 for commercial and unclassified government applications. DES is a block-cipher employing a 56-bit key that operates on 64-bit blocks. DES has a complex set of rules and transformations that were designed specifically to yield fast hardware implementations and slow software implementations, although this latter point is becoming less significant today since the speed of computer processors is several orders of magnitude faster today than twenty years ago.


Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): In 1997, NIST initiated a very public, 4-1/2 year process to develop a new secure cryptosystem for U.S. government applications. The result, the Advanced Encryption Standard, became the official successor to DES in December 2001. AES uses an SKC scheme called Rijndael, a block cipher designed by Belgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The algorithm can use a variable block length and key length; the latest specification allowed any combination of keys lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits and blocks of length 128, 192, or 256 bits.


International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA): Secret-key cryptosystem written by Xuejia Lai and James Massey, in 1992 and patented by Ascom; a 64-bit SKC block cipher using a 128-bit key. Also available internationally.The basic structure resembles of DES in that 64-bit plaintext input blocks are mangled in a sequence of parametarized iterations to produce 64-bit ciphertext output blocks.


Secure and Fast Encryption Routine (SAFER): Secret-key crypto scheme designed for implementation in software. Versions have been defined for 40-, 64-, and 128-bit keys.


Blowfish: A symmetric 64-bit block cipher invented by Bruce Schneier; optimized for 32-bit processors with large data caches, it is significantly faster than DES on a Pentium/PowerPC-class machine. Key lengths can vary from 32 to 448 bits in length. Blowfish, available freely and intended as a substitute for DES or IDEA, is in use in over 80 products.

Public-Key Cryptography

Public-key cryptography has been said to be the most significant new development in cryptography in the last 300-400 years. Modern PKC was first described publicly by Stanford University professor Martin Hellman and graduate student Whitfield Diffie in 1976. Their paper described a two-key crypto system in which two parties could engage in a secure communication over a non-secure communications channel without having to share a secret key.PKC depends upon the existence of so-called one-way functions, or mathematical functions that are easy to computer whereas their inverse function is relatively difficult to compute.Generic PKC employs two keys that are mathematically related although knowledge of one key does not allow someone to easily determine the other key. One key is used to encrypt the plaintext and the other key is used to decrypt the ciphertext. The important point here is that it does not matter which key is applied first, but that both keys are required for the process to work (Figure 1B). Because a pair of keys are required, this approach is also called asymmetric cryptography.In PKC, one of the keys is designated the public key and may be advertised as widely as the owner wants. The other key is designated the private key and is never revealed to another party. It is straight forward to send messages under this scheme.

Public-key cryptography algorithms that are in use today for key exchange or digital signatures include:

RSA: The first, and still most common, PKC implementation, named for the three MIT mathematicians who developed it — Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. RSA today is used in hundreds of software products and can be used for key exchange, digital signatures, or encryption of small blocks of data. RSA uses a variable size encryption block and a variable size key. The key-pair is derived from a very large number, n, that is the product of two prime numbers chosen according to special rules; these primes may be 100 or more digits in length each, yielding an n with roughly twice as many digits as the prime factors. The public key information includes n and a derivative of one of the factors of n; an attacker cannot determine the prime factors of n (and, therefore, the private key) from this information alone and that is what makes the RSA algorithm so secure. (Some descriptions of PKC erroneously state that RSA's safety is due to the difficulty in factoring large prime numbers. In fact, large prime numbers, like small prime numbers, only have two factors!) The ability for computers to factor large numbers, and therefore attack schemes such as RSA, is rapidly improving and systems today can find the prime factors of numbers with more than 200 digits. Nevertheless, if a large number is created from two prime factors that are roughly the same size, there is no known factorization algorithm that will solve the problem in a reasonable amount of time; a 2005 test to factor a 200-digit number took 1.5 years and over 50 years of compute time (see the Wikipedia article on integer factorization.) Regardless, one presumed protection of RSA is that users can easily increase the key size to always stay ahead of the computer processing curve. As an aside, the patent for RSA expired in September 2000 which does not appear to have affected RSA's popularity one way or the other.

Hash Functions

Hash functions, also called message digests and one-way encryption, are algorithms that, in some sense, use no key (Figure 1C). Instead, a fixed-length hash value is computed based upon the plaintext that makes it impossible for either the contents or length of the plaintext to be recovered. Hash algorithms are typically used to provide a digital fingerprint of a file's contents, often used to ensure that the file has not been altered by an intruder or virus. Hash functions are also commonly employed by many operating systems to encrypt passwords. Hash functions, then, provide a measure of the integrity of a file.