Ms Dos And Batch File Programming Tricks And Tips

DOS is basically a file caled command.com .It is this file which handles all DOS commands that we give at DOS prompt-such as copy,dir,del,etc.

Batch file programming is nothing but the windows version of unix shell programming.To perform a bulk set of commands over and over again,batch files are used.

Some Important And Hidden Dos Command
1>ANSI.SYS - Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and
reassign keys.
2>ARP - Displays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices
3>AT - Schedule a time to execute commands or programs.
4>COLOR - Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.
5>CONTROL - Open control panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.
6>CTTY - Change the computers input/output devices.
7>EMM386 - Load extended Memory Manager.
8>IFSHLP.SYS - 32-bit file manager.
9>SWITCHES - Remove add functions from MS-DOS.
10>SYS - Transfer system files to disk drive.

Redirection Of OUTPUT:
Send the output of the dos prompt to a file on disk.This can be done using the Redirection operator,> .
Example: c:\windows>net>xyz.txt
This command will execute the net command and will store the results in the
text file ,xyz.txt.
To print the results: c:\windows>dir*.*>prn

Redirection of Input:
we can also redirect input ,from .txt file to DOS prompt.
Example: c:\windows> more <>


ECHO I am going to delete the following files:
ECHO %1 %2
ECHO CTRL+C to Abort Process
FOR %%A IN (%1 %2) DO DEL %%a
ECHO Killed files.Mission Accomplished By Sonu Mishra.



http://www.monster.com/ has been hacked by the hackers.The Hackers has always attacked the internet from time to time and most of the time they have succeeded.This time,one of the largest job search engine website has been hacked.Over 1.3 million users have been affected in this hacking.Patrick Martin, senior product manager at Symantec, said that the aim of the attack seemed to have been to gain access to user data to send more convincing spam in the hope of stealing financial information.

Great Hacks since yet.

Arpanet, the forerunner of the internet, is founded. The first network has only four nodes.

First e-mail program written by Ray Tomlinson and used on Arpanet which now has 64 nodes.

In October 1980, Arpanet comes to a crashing halt by the accidental distribution of a virus.

The internet is formed when Arpanet is split into military and civilian sections. Wargames, a film that glamorises hacking, is released. Many hackers later claim that the movie inspired them to start playing around with computers and networks.

In August, while following up a 75 cent accounting error in the computer logs at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab at the University of California, Berkeley, network manager Clifford Stoll uncovers evidence of hackers at work. A year-long investigation results in the arrest of the five German hackers who were found responsible for that.

Robert Morris, a graduate student at Cornell University, sets off an internet worm program that quickly replicates itself to over 6,000 hosts bringing almost the whole network to a halt. Morris is arrested soon afterwards and is punished by being fined $10,000, sentenced to three years on probation and ordered to do 400 hours of community service.
Worms are different from virus.

Kevin Mitnick: Arrested twice for hacking.He is convicted of stealing software from Digital Equipment and codes for long-distance lines from US telephone company MCI. He is the first person convicted under a new law against gaining access to an interstate computer network for criminal purposes. He spent a one-year prison term. At the Cern laboratory for research in high-energy physics in Geneva, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau develop the protocols that will become the world wide web.

Kevin Poulsen, Ronald Austin and Justin Peterson were charged for conspiring to rig a radio phone-in competition to win prizes. The trio seized control of phone lines to the radio station ensuring only their calls got through. The group allegedly netted two Porsches, $20,000 in cash and holidays in Hawaii.

A 16-year-old music student called Richard Pryce, better known by the hacker alias Datastream Cowboy, is arrested and charged with breaking into hundreds of computers including those at the Griffiths Air Force base, Nasa and the Korean Atomic Research Institute. His online mentor, "Kuji", is never found. Also this year, a group directed by Russian hackers breaks into the computers of Citibank and transfers more than $10 million from customers' accounts. Eventually, Citibank recovered all but $400,000 of the pilfered money.

In February, Kevin Mitnick is arrested for a second time. He is charged with stealing 20,000 credit card numbers. He eventually spends four years in jail and on his release his parole conditions demand that he avoid contact with computers and mobile phones.
On November 15, Christopher Pile becomes the first person to be jailed for writing and distributing a computer virus. Mr Pile, who called himself the Black Baron, was sentenced to 18 months in jail. The US General Accounting Office reveals that US Defense Department computers sustained 250,000 attacks in 1995.

Popular websites are attacked and defaced in an attempt to protest about the treatment of Kevin Mitnick. The internet now has over 16 million hosts and is growing rapidly.

Popular Internet search engine Yahoo! is hit by hackers claiming a "logic bomb" will go off in the PCs of Yahoo!'s users on Christmas Day 1997 unless Kevin Mitnick is released from prison. "There is no virus," Yahoo! spokeswoman Diane Hunt said. Hackers pierce security in Microsoft's NT operating system to illustrate its weaknesses.
AOHell is released, a freeware application that allows a burgeoning community of unskilled hackers--or script kiddies--to wreak havoc on America Online. For days, hundreds of thousands of AOL users find their mailboxes flooded with multi-megabyte mail bombs and their chat rooms disrupted with spam messages.

Anti-hacker ad runs during Super Bowl XXXII. The Network Associates ad, costing $1.3-million for 30 seconds, shows two Russian missile silo crewmen worrying that a computer order to launch missiles may have come from a hacker. They decide to blow up the world anyway.
In January, the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics is inundated for days with hundreds of thousands of fake information requests, a hacker attack called "spamming."
Hackers break into United Nation's Children Fund Web site, threatening a "holocaust" if Kevin Mitnick is not freed.
Hackers claim to have broken into a Pentagon network and stolen software for a military satellite system. They threaten to sell the software to terrorists.
The U.S. Justice Department unveils National Infrastructure Protection Center, which is given a mission to protect the nation's telecommunications, technology and transportation systems from hackers.
Hacker group L0pht, in testimony before Congress, warns it could shut down nationwide access to the Internet in less than 30 minutes. The group urges stronger security measures.

The hacking group Cult of the Dead Cow releases its Trojan horse program, Back Orifice--a powerful hacking tool--at Def Con. Once a hacker installs the Trojan horse on a machine running Windows 95 or Windows 98, the program allows unauthorized remote access of the machine.

David Smith,The Creator of the Melissa virus.In March, the Melissa virus goes on the rampage and wreaks havoc with computers worldwide. After a short investigation, the FBI tracks down and arrests the writer of the virus, a 29-year-old New Jersey computer programmer, David L Smith.

In February, some of the most popular websites in the world such as Amazon and Yahoo are almost overwhelmed by being flooded with bogus requests for data.
In May, the ILOVEYOU virus is unleashed and clogs computers worldwide. Over the coming months, variants of the virus are released that manage to catch out companies that didn't do enough to protect themselves.
In October, Microsoft admits that its corporate network has been hacked and source code for future Windows products has been seen.

DNS Attack
Microsoft becomes the prominent victim of a new type of hack that attacks the domain name server. In these denial-of-service attacks, the DNS paths that take users to Microsoft's Web sites are corrupted. The hack is detected within a few hours, but prevents millions of users from reaching Microsoft Web pages for two days.


NEW YORK (Reuters) - A 22-year-old California man pleaded guilty Thursday to hacking into the New York Times Co. computer network and entering a database containing personal information about Op-Ed page contributors.


NEW YORK - Saying it's been a bad week in the realm of information security is putting it lightly. The incident that got the most attention, mostly because it involved compromising pictures of the ever-overexposed Paris Hilton, was the ever-widening fallout from a hacking attack. The target was the servers that wireless carrier T-Mobile uses to run services for users of its Sidekick wireless devices. Paris Hilton: Her Sidekick wireless device was the target of a hacking attack, and now her friends are angry.

WASHINGTON — Cisco Systems Inc. (CSCO) said on Tuesday authorities in Sweden had detained a person for stealing its source code, the basic instructions for the machines that direct Internet traffic around the globe.
"We are aware that a person has been detained in Sweden related to the IOS source code theft and are encouraged by this action," the San Jose, Calif., company said in a statement.


CHICAGO _ A computer consultant working in the FBI's Springfield, Ill., offices used free programs available on the Internet to breach secure areas of the bureau's computer system and find administrators' passwords, including one belonging to FBI Director Robert Mueller. Joseph Thomas Colon, 28, who was living in Springfield was the hero.

LOS ANGELES: A Romanian man has been indicted on charges of hacking into more than 150 U.S. government computers, causing disruptions that cost NASA, the Energy Department and the Navy nearly $1.5 million (€1.1 million).


CARACAS, Venezuela — A 17-year-old has been detained by Venezuelan authorities after hacking into multiple government Web sites and posting playful photos of President Hugo Chavez and his close ally, Cuba's Fidel Castro.
The boy modified 23 Web sites _ including those of the vice president's office, the National Guard and the investigative police _ in late December, said Oswaldo Guevara, the investigative police's head of computer-related crimes.

LONDON: A British court on Friday sentenced a tabloid journalist to four months in prison for hacking into royal officials' voicemail systems.
Judge Peter Henry Gross said he had no option but to hand a prison sentence to Clive Goodman, 49, the royal editor of the News of the World, describing his crime as "reprehensible in the extreme."

Symantec discovers Monster hack :Hackers have stolen the personal information — including home addresses and phone numbers – of several hundred thousand users of online job portal Monster.com.
According to online security firm Symantec Corp., hackers over the weekend used a Trojan Horse virus called Infostealer.Monstres to break into Monster accounts maintained by recruiters and steal their credentials. The hackers used that information to log into Monster.com as prospective employers and gleaned personal details, including names, addresses and phone numbers, from individuals who had posted resumes to the site.


India in IT Field Since Independence

  • India celebrated the 60th anniversary of its independence from British rule Wednesday in a triumphant mood, with many here feeling the country is finally taking its rightful place as a major global player.

    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said "I assure you that for each one of you, and for our country, the best is yet to come," on the eve of his traditional Independence Day speech.

    IT in India
    Information technology essentially refers to the digital processing, storage and communication of information of all kindsTherefore, IT can potentially be used in every sector of the economy. The true impact of IT on growth and productivity continues to be a matter of debate, even in the United States, which has been the leader and largest adopter of IT.However, there is no doubt that the IT sector has been a dynamic one in many developed countries, and India has stood out as a developing country where IT, in the guise of software exports, has grown dramatically, despite the country’s relatively low level of income and development. An example of IT’s broader impact comes from the case of so-called IT-enabled services, a broad category covering many different kinds of data processing and voice interactions that use some IT infrastructure as inputs, but do not necessarily involve the production of IT outputs. India’s figures for the size of the IT sector typically include such services.
    A popular alternative is ICT, for information and communications technology: the World Bank, for example, favors this term.
    To give a sampling of research in the US, David (2000) emphasizes the lag with which any new technology affects productivity; Gordon (2000) offers a skeptical view of the impact of IT on productivity, arguing that the empirical evidence indicates that the impact is narrow and limited; Jorgenson, in the most comprehensive analysis, finds that IT has contributed significantly to total factor productivity growth (TFPG) in the US. Of course, higher TFPG implies higher overall growth, ceteris paribus.
    Indicators of the strength of India’s software export capabilities include the depth of its base, and the breadth of its global reach. There are over 2,500 Indian software exporters, and while only the top five (TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Satyam and HCL) are – or are approaching the status of – global brands, they together account for only about 35% of software exports.The United States remains by far the largest market for India’s software exports, its share of India’s software exports being 63%, with Europe coming in at 26%, and Japan and the rest of the world accounting for the remaining 11% (NASSCOM, 2002). Individual firms and organizations such as NASSCOM have shown themselves to be adept at targeting markets with substantial growth potential, such as Germany, and the reputations built in exporting to the US are proving important.

    IT-enabled services (ITES) have shown the strongest growth in the last two years. They include a variety of types of service, ranging from customer call centers, to accounting services and other business process outsourcing, to GIS and engineering services. Thus the required degree of technical sophistication of the workforce and the level of use of IT can vary widely. In fact, the three categories I have mentioned make up most of India’s ITES exports, with the first two showing high growth and representing over 60% of the total of Rs. 71 billion.
    These figures are calculated from data in NASSCOM (2002), and exclude IT enabled services.

    Table 1: Falling Costs of Computing ($)

    Costs of computing 1970 1999
    1 Mhz of processing power 7,601 0.17
    1 megabit of storage 5,257 0.17
    1 trillion bits sent 150,000 0.12

    This significant boost to the country's Internet plans can be accounted to the Government, which has announced several landmark decisions that have helped increase Internet penetration in India. The Internet survey conducted in 68 cities / towns in India in 2002 (accounting for over 92 percent of the total Internet users in the country) on Internet Usage Trends by different agencies came up with some interesting findings:

  • More than 200 cities and towns in India have Internet connectivity.

  • As of Sep 2002, there was a PC base of 6.5 million PCs. Out of these, there were more than 4.3 million machines that had Pentium II and above processors (i.e. machines which could be effectively used for Internet).

  • More than 120 private ISPs would be fully operational by June 31, 2001 (out of the projected 500 licenses to be given by that date).

  • At least 12 private international gateways for Internet are expected in the same period. Seven private international gateways are already operational by December 2000.

  • More than 86 percent of top 100 corporate companies (who responded to the survey) have endorsed the Internet and e-commerce as being an integral part of their corporate strategic framework for next year.

  • The capital cities (New Delhi and other state capitals) today account for 79 percent of Internet connections across the country.

  • More than 81% of PC sales in financial year 2001 were driven by the need to access the Internet

  • 91% of India's corporate websites are located overseas.

  • There has been a substantial increase in Internet Access through all ages. More than 11% of all 40 year olds access the Internet now. The most widespread usage is found among the 18-24 year age group.

  • The male:female ratio of Internet Users has changed from 82% of males to 18% of females in June 1999, to 74% males to 26% females at the time of this study.

  • Approximately 16,00,000 households are connected to the Internet.

  • Of all Internet Users, the corporate/professional segment forms the largest at 43% followed by students at 38% .

  • More than half (59.2%) of the Internet user population use it for information seeking purposes, 11.3% use it for education purposes and 8.2% use it for entertainment.

    Software Technology Parks Of India
    Software Technology parks of India - Thiruvananthapuram (STPI-T) came into existence in 1992. Since then, more than 240 companies have been registered and 87 companies are exporting software regularly to countires like US, UK, Japan & Germany and middle East. Contribution from STPI has been mainly towards extraordinary support provided to the software industry and its fast responsiveness. It has helped in changing the trend from onsite to offshore development by providing state-of-the-art data communication facility through dedicated satellite earth station at various STPI centres.It has six local IT centers located at Kozhikode, Kollam, Kottayam, Kochi, Trishur and Palayad. Its software exports in 2002 crossed US $ 200 Million.


    Indian space program driven by vision of Dr Vikram Sarabhai considered as the father of Indian Space Program. Main objective of space program includes development of satellites, launch vehicles, Sounding Rockets and associated ground systems. Crossed several major milestones. Experimental phase included Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Satellite Telecommunication Experiment (STEP), remote sensing application projects, satellites like Aryabhata, Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE and launch vehicles, SLV-3 and ASLV. Present operational space systems include Indian National Satellite (INSAT) for tele-communication, television broadcasting, meteorology and disaster warning and Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) for resources monitoring and management. INSAT-2E, The latest of the INSAT-2 series of satellites built by ISRO, is a multi-purpose satellite for telecommunication, television broadcasting and meteorological services. The satellite is located at 83 degrees east longitude in geostationary orbit. INSAT-2E carries seventeen transponders-12 operating in the normal C-band frequency and 5 in the lower extend C-band. Seven of the normal C-band transponders have wide beam coverage and the remaining have zonal coverage.INSAT-2E is launched by European Arian Launch Vehicle to a Geosynchronous transfer orbit with a perigee of 200 km and an apogee of 35,980 km.

Block A Website On Your Computer.


Hey Friends,want to block any site from opening on your computer.If you want to block some site in windows O.S. to be browse from your computer.

Then do following steps.........

open the location..
you will find a hosts file.First backup the hosts file.
Open hosts file there, from the notepad.
At the end of the line you can see as per below. localhost

Append the following line at the end BlockSitename.com Replace the BlockSitename.com with the site name that you want to block.


If you want to restrict http://www.yahoo.com/ then in the hosts file do this.... http://www.yahoo.com/
or http://www.yahoo.com/

as ip means nothing.

Then go to Start->Run-> type: ipconfig /flushdns to restart the network.

Note: That will only stop the domain name to go to the website but if you know the IP address of the site from the gnsstuff or whois then you can brose your site.



As is often the case with inventions, many inventors contribute to the history of an invention. In the case of the ATM, Don Wetzel invented the first successful and modern ATM in the USA, however he was not first inventor to create an ATM. In 1939, Luther George Simjian started patenting an earlier and not-so-successful version of an ATM. Read about Luther George Simjian here.

There are 3 major types of Automatic teller machines.
1> IBM
The first of these (and the most popular) is the IBM model. This is easilydistinguised from the others by the IBM logo in the top right hand corner ofthe front of the machine.This unit features a touch sensitive keypad and a 1 line display with a visorthat moves up and down. (The newer models have a 5 line display)..

2> NCR
The second unit is the NCR unit, which is MUCH smaller than than the IBM frontpanel. This unit has a small VDU as well as a touch sensitive keypad. The onlybanks that seem to be using this unit in Australia is the 'STATE BANK' ofVictoria, so you will not see many of them around.

The third and final unit is made by Philips as is only used by the creditunions or Building Societys. This is usually known as 'CASHCARD'. These unitsfeature a push-button keyboard and a VDU (like the NCR).
All these above units provide the same functions...

>>How Do ATMs Work?
An ATM is simply a data terminal with two input and four output devices. Like any other data terminal, the ATM has to connect to, and communicate through, a host processor. The host processor is analogous to an Internet service provider (ISP) in that it is the gateway through which all the various ATM networks become available to the cardholder (the person wanting the cash). Most host processors can support either leased-line or dial-up machines. Leased-line machines connect directly to the host processor through a four-wire, point-to-point, dedicated telephone line. Dial-up ATMs connect to the host processor through a normal phone line using a modem and a toll-free number, or through an Internet service provider using a local access number dialed by modem. Leased-line ATMs are preferred for very high-volume locations because of their thru-put capability, and dial-up ATMs are preferred for retail merchant locations where cost is a greater factor than thru-put. The initial cost for a dial-up machine is less than half that for a leased-line machine. The monthly operating costs for dial-up are only a fraction of the costs for leased-line. The host processor may be owned by a bank or financial institution, or it may be owned by an independent service provider. Bank-owned processors normally support only bank-owned machines, whereas the independent processors support merchant-owned machines.

>>Parts of the Machine
You're probably one of the millions who has used an ATM. As you know, an ATM has two input devices:

1>> Card reader - The card reader captures the account information stored on the magnetic stripe on the back of an ATM/debit or credit card. The host processor uses this information to route the transaction to the cardholder's bank.
2 >>Keypad - The keypad lets the cardholder tell the bank what kind of transaction is required (cash withdrawal, balance inquiry, etc.) and for what amount. Also, the bank requires the cardholder's personal identification number (PIN) for verification. Federal law requires that the PIN block be sent to the host processor in encrypted form. And an ATM has four output devices:
1) Speaker - The speaker provides the cardholder with auditory feedback when a key is pressed. 2) Display screen - The display screen prompts the cardholder through each step of the transaction process. Leased-line machines commonly use a monochrome or color CRT (cathode ray tube) display. Dial-up machines commonly use a monochrome or color LCD.
3) Receipt printer - The receipt printer provides the cardholder with a paper receipt of the transaction.
4) Cash dispenser - The heart of an ATM is the safe and cash-dispensing mechanism. The entire bottom portion of most small ATMs is a safe that contains the cash.

>>Sensing Bills The cash-dispensing mechanism has an electric eye that counts each bill as it exits the dispenser. The bill count and all of the information pertaining to a particular transaction is recorded in a journal. The journal information is printed out periodically and a hard copy is maintained by the machine owner for two years. Whenever a cardholder has a dispute about a transaction, he or she can ask for a journal printout showing the transaction, and then contact the host processor. If no one is available to provide the journal printout, the cardholder needs to notify the bank or institution that issued the card and fill out a form that will be faxed to the host processor. It is the host processor's responsibility to resolve the dispute. Besides the electric eye that counts each bill, the cash-dispensing mechanism also has a sensor that evaluates the thickness of each bill. If two bills are stuck together, then instead of being dispensed to the cardholder they are diverted to a reject bin. The same thing happens with a bill that is excessively worn, torn, or folded. The number of reject bills is also recorded so that the machine owner can be aware of the quality of bills that are being loaded into the machine. A high reject rate would indicate a problem with the bills or with the dispenser mechanism.

>>ATM Security
ATMs keep your personal identification number (PIN) and other information safe by using encryption software such as Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard). But there are lots of things that you can do to protect your information and your money at an ATM.Many banks recommend that you select your own PIN. Visa offers the following PIN tips:
Don't write down your PIN. If you must write it down, do not store it in your wallet or purse. Make your PIN a series of letters or numbers that you can easily remember, but that cannot easily be associated with you personally. Avoid using birth dates, initials, house numbers or your phone number. Visa also recommends the following tips for safe ATM usage:
Store your ATM card in your purse or wallet, in an area where it won't get scratched or bent. Get your card out BEFORE you approach the ATM. You'll be more vulnerable to attack if you're standing in front of the ATM, fumbling through your wallet for your card. Stand directly in front of the ATM keypad when typing in your PIN. This prevents anyone waiting to use the machine from seeing your personal information. After your transaction, take your receipt, card and money away. Do not stand in front of the machine and count your money. If you are using a drive-up ATM, get your vehicle as close to the machine as possible to prevent anyone from coming up to your window. Also make sure that your doors are locked before you drive up to the machine. Do not leave your car running while using a walk-up ATM. Take your keys with you and lock the doors before your transaction. If someone or something makes you uncomfortable, cancel your transaction and leave the machine immediately. Follow up with your bank to make sure the transaction was cancelled and alert the bank to any suspicious people. Many retail merchants close their store at night. It is strongly recommended that they pull the money out of the machine when they close, just like they do with their cash registers, and leave the door to the security compartment wide open like they do with an empty cash-register drawer. This makes it obvious to any would-be thief that this is not payday.
It's important to use a well-lit, public ATM machine at night. For safety reasons, ATM users should seek out a machine that is located in a well-lighted public place. Federal law requires that only the last four digits of the cardholder's account number be printed on the transaction receipt so that when a receipt is left at the machine location, the account number is secure. However, the entry of your four-digit personal identification number (PIN) on the keypad should still be obscured from observation, which can be done by positioning your hand and body in such a way that the PIN entry cannot be recorded by store cameras or store employees. The cardholder's PIN is not recorded in the journal, but the account number is. If you protect your PIN, you protect your account.

Information on the Plastic Cards

The Plastic Cards that you put into these cash carrying monsters have a Numberthat is printed on the front of the card (which is also the same number, thatis stored on the MAGNETIC STRIP on the back of the card.)What do these numbers mean????? Well here is some information on them...The Numbers are split up into 2 groups, the first group ALWAYS containsSIX numbers while the second group contains anywhere between 6 to 13 numbers.EG) 560192 3012565214782\ /\ / __ This 3 digit number identifies the Bank. __ This is the Australian ID code and ALL banks have this.Some ID's for banks............

018 - State Bank of India
192 - Westpac Banking Corporation
251 - National Australia Bank
220 - Commenwealth Bank

The Second part of the number seems to be a jumble of digits for 6 to 13, whichonly seem to make sense to the banks computer.The banks computer simply looks the second number up in a Table and finds outyour assigned PIN number (A password for your card consisting of 4 digits), and any other information. eg) Your savings account no. Cheque a/c etc.Since the four Digit PIN (Personal Identification Numbers) range from 0000 to9999, then more than one person has the same PIN number for his card. (Banks dohave more that 10,000 customers !!)Okay now that we have some simple background information we can learn how to'defeat' the system..